Supporting education and related programs for the empowerment
of children, youth and their communities in the Asia Pacific

Child Protection Policy

 

The Lasallian Foundation is committed to the safety and wellbeing of all children. We support the rights of children and will act without hesitation to maintain a child-safe environment across all of our supported projects.

The Foundation is committed to the protection of children from harm, abuse, exploitation and discrimination. Children have a right to survival, development, protection and participation as stated in the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights’ Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC).

The Foundation works with all our partners to ensure that they have an effective Child Protection Policy, with relevant staff training and implementation procedures in place.

Please see the Lasallian Foundation's Child Protection Policy below.

The Foundation works with all our partners to ensure that they have an effective Child Protection Policy, with relevant staff training and implementation procedures in place.

 

 

LASALLIAN FOUNDATION CHILD PROTECTION POLICY

 

 

1. Title of policy

Lasallian Foundation Child Protection Policy (CPP)

 

2. Definition of child abuse

Child abuse can be defined as the neglect or discrimination of, or the physical, sexual or emotional mistreatment of, a child, regardless of whether the action is willful or deliberate or not. This includes the potential or threat to harm or mistreat, as well as actual harm inflicted.

 

3. Definition of a child

The CPP defines a child as anyone less than 18 years of age, unless a specific nation’s laws recognise adulthood or the age of majority as being obtained earlier.

 

4. Statement on commitment to child protection

·      The LF is committed to the safety and wellbeing of all children. We support the rights of children and will act without hesitation to maintain a child-safe environment across all of our supported projects.

·      The LF is committed to the protection of children from harm, abuse, exploitation and discrimination. Children have a right to survival, development, protection and participation as stated in the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights’ Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). The LF will uphold these rights.

·      The LF takes its duty of care seriously and will at all times provide the safest possible programs and environments for children and the staff who look after them. This will be achieved by identifying and managing risks that may lead to the harm of children in any way.

·      We will not knowingly engage with organisations, including its LPOs, or support projects where child protection is not of the utmost importance.

·      The LF will engage with organisations and authorities in the countries where it supports projects to continually uphold children’s rights. We will also work with them to plan, implement and manage projects that are child-friendly and free from any form of abuse, harm, exploitation or discrimination.

·      The LF will ensure that appropriate relationships are maintained at all times between individuals working on a LF-supported project and the children participating in the relevant project.

 

The LF will ensure there are procedures in place to monitor the implementation of the Child Protection Policy. The LF will visit the projects on an annual basis to evaluate and determine the effectiveness of the CPP. We will immediately seek to address any issues that may arise in relation to child protection and children’s rights within the LF, its LPOs or the Foundation’s supported projects.

 

5. Purpose of the policy

·      This CPP has been developed to provide a practical guide to prevent child abuse in LF projects. It outlines a range of risk management strategies that will be implemented which will reduce the risk of children being harmed.

·      The CPP demonstrates the LF’s commitment to protect children from harm, abuse, exploitation and discrimination and create and maintain appropriate relationships between all staff and children participating in LF-supported projects.

·      The CPP aims to educate staff and others about child abuse and promote a child-safe and child-friendly culture where every individual is committed to keeping children free from any form of abuse.

·      The CPP aims to create an open and aware environment where concerns for the safety and wellbeing of a child can be raised and managed in a fair and just manner, thus protecting the rights of all concerned.

·      The CPP gives guidance on how to respond to concerns and allegations of child abuse. It provides direction to staff and others on how to work respectfully and effectively with children, and offers all stakeholders a safe working environment.

·      As a signatory to the Australian Council For International Development (ACFID) Code of Conduct, the LF is obliged to have policies and procedures implemented which promote the safety and well-being of all children accessing its services and projects, in particular to minimise the risk of abuse to children. The LF formally ratified Clause 2.6 when it unanimously adopted the ACFID Code of Conduct.

·      The LF is obliged to adhere to local and international laws that prohibit the abuse and exploitation of children. These include local laws where LF projects exist, and international laws and conventions relating to all forms of child abuse and exploitation, including, but not limited to, child sex tourism, child neglect, child trafficking, child labour, child pornography and child sexual harassment.

 

6. Guiding principles

·      The LF believes that any form of child abuse and exploitation is unacceptable and will not be tolerated. It will not support projects where child abuse and exploitation occur or have occurred in the past, nor will it work with any individual who poses an unacceptable risk to children.

·      The UNCRC is the universal foundation for child protection. The fundamental principle of the Convention is that children have their own indivisible rights and that these must be upheld by individuals and organisations working with children.

·      The LF believes that all children have a right to be safe at all times and that the Foundation has an obligation to provide safe and protective services and environments for children involved in their supported projects.

·      The LF recognises its duty of care to take all reasonable steps to ensure that children are safe from harm at all times.

·      The LF will take proactive steps to create child-safe and child-friendly projects.

·      Adherence to the CPP is a mandatory requirement for all LF and LPO staff, as well as all others working on any LF-supported project.

·      The LF will ensure that all staff and relevant stakeholders are made aware of the CPP and their responsibilities in relation to it.

·      All decisions regarding the welfare and protection of children will be made based on the Best Interests of the Child principle. This principle refers to decisions made on the consideration that a child receives the maximum benefit possible from services provided, and that the positive impacts of any course of action must outweigh any negative impacts.

·      Where possible, children will be consulted in the CPP development and implementation of child-safe practices. Children in our projects should be given opportunities to express their views on matters affecting them and projects that they participate in.

·      The LF believes that all children should be equally protected and assisted regardless of gender, nationality, religious or political beliefs, family background, economic status, physical or mental health, sexuality or criminal background.

 

7. Context

Child abuse is a global problem that affects both boys and girls. It has existed for centuries and can be deeply rooted in cultural, economic and social practices. It can be inflicted by both men and women, as well as children themselves.

There are many ways which child abuse is perpetrated. Some forms that may not be immediately obvious include:

·      child labour, such as working in sweat shops and as prostitutes;

·      boys being kidnapped and forced into armed conflict as child soldiers;

·      severe corporal punishment in schools;

·      contracting HIV/AIDS from a parent or being orphaned and ostracised due to it;

·      parents not providing children with access to medical services or education;

·      disciplining using physical means;

·      witnessing domestic violence within a household;

·      bonded slavery and/or labour due to the dowry system; and

·      the favouring of one child over another, especially in relation to gender.

There are a wide variety of factors that contribute to child abuse. An example of this breadth can be seen in India where child abuse is considered endemic and is perpetuated through the caste system. The Dalit population, which are the lowest of the castes, are often victimised and exploited due to their lack of societal standing and community involvement. Although the caste system has been officially outlawed by the Indian Government, the reality is that caste-based practices and traditions still exist and, as such, contribute significantly to child abuse in that country.

More general reasons why child abuse occur relate to aspects such as substance abuse, unemployment, financial difficulties, familial problems, unwanted births and gender and social inequality. Those children living in poverty are particularly vulnerable and at greater risk of child abuse and exploitation than those not.

The same applies to children in war zones and those affected by natural disasters, such as floods, cyclones or drought. This is because of the circumstances that they find themselves in; children can become more trusting when faced with dire situations and it is this susceptibility that is exploitable and can lead to abuse.

Traditions and cultures which encourage large families can place stress on the family unit and directly lead to neglect, especially where resources within the unit are limited or lacking. In countries such as Pakistan, where the average number of children per family is more than five (De Silva 2003, p. 1), there can be disparity between boys and girls in terms of such basic needs as nutrition and access to health services when required. This is due to the poverty that pervades the country, as well as the male-centred culture within Pakistan.

The following statistics present an overall perspective of global child abuse:

·      According to the World Health Organisation (2010), up to half of all children report being physically abused.

·      Although numbers are unreliable, an estimated 1.2 million children were trafficked during 2000 (International Labour Organization 2009, p. 34).

·      The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2011a) estimates that 1 million children enter the commercial global child sex trade every year.

·      150 million children aged between 5 and 14 across the world are involved in child labour (United Nations Children’s Fund 2011b, p. 33), including over 1.5 million in Cambodia alone (Lasallian Foundation 2011, p. 25).

·      1 in 7 girls will experience some form of sexual abuse during their childhood.

Instances of child abuse never take into consideration the boy or girl to whom the abuse is happening. The mistreatment of children does not occur with any thought of consequence, either. If child abuse begins at an early age, then it can become systematic and remain so for many years.

Prolonged abuse as a child can lead to further problems once a child reaches adulthood. Someone abused as a child may also abuse children, as well as have mental health issues and substance dependency problems in their later life.

Emotional abuse is mistreatment that is not always apparent and is difficult to define easily. It includes actions from caregivers such as verbally abusing children, degrading them in front of others, the destruction of their personal belongings, excessive criticism of a child, humiliation of a young individual and inappropriate or continual demands on a child. Emotional abuse affects children psychologically which, in their early years, can lead to greater problems in adulthood. Constant emotional abuse can see children exhibit withdrawn behaviour, return the abuse or internalise the actions directed at them, as well as creating a lack of self-confidence in later life and a tendency to be emotionally detached.

Although children have universal rights, these are sometimes dismissed in deference to culture, tradition and society and the role that some children are expected to perform in this context. Aspects such as child labour can be seen as benefiting families and communities over and above the mistreatment that such actions can bring. Where families are large, or in countries where poverty is common, sending children to work at a young age can be seen as the only way to make ends meet, even though their earnings may be small.

Every child has a right to make decisions free from external interference and without consequence to that choice. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, especially when in relation to activities and actions perpetrated by individuals whom children should respect, including parents, extended families, authorities and those in positions where there is constant contact with children.

In many developing countries, acts that may be considered child abuse are commonplace, although these are set within the social, cultural and traditional contexts in which they occur. Aspects such as child labour, child marriage, lack of access to education, physical harm by parents and inequality in nutrition between genders are seen as simply part of life by both parties.

While most child abuse occurs within families and communities, children also experience abuse and exploitation in organisations that should be providing them with support and services. Physical and emotional abuse and neglect in child-focused organisations and institutions is less systematic than family-based abuse and is usually unplanned. It is commonly due to unsatisfactory conditions, bad work practices, negligent management and poor employee screening processes.

However, child sexual abuse in organisations is usually planned and premeditated. Child sex offenders target organisations working with children in order to gain access to their victims. They seek work that provides opportunities to make contact with children and an environment where their abuse may go undetected. Child sex offenders will be attracted to organisations with inadequate recruitment practices and supervision, as this means that there is less risk of them being caught.

Over the last decade, many Western countries have enacted tougher laws against child sex offending and many child-focused organisations have implemented tighter screening practices for the staff and volunteers. These improved child protection measures have led to increasing numbers of child sex offenders moving overseas to seek work in developing countries and within development projects.

They will seek work in countries with inadequate child protection laws and law enforcement, as well as in countries where children and their families are vulnerable to exploitation, such as those in poverty. During recent responses to natural disasters and emergencies, it was widely reported that people who pose a risk to children (e.g. convicted child sex offenders) applied for positions in programs that brought them into contact with vulnerable children.

Many countries in the developing world have serious histories of systemic child abuse in all forms. Unfortunately, many children have learned that survival often means submitting to all forms of indignities and criminal acts, regardless of the consequences, and many see this behaviour as tolerable and rewarding. This means workers in the development field must be extra vigilant to ensure their own integrity.

While there are many examples of children being sexually abused by foreign offenders, there are also numerous examples of local staff and volunteers sexually abusing children in aid and development projects. As an example, in 2002, the widespread sexual abuse and exploitation of children by aid workers was exposed in West African refugee camps. It was alleged that 67 aid workers from more than 40 agencies were trading shelter, education, food and medicine for sexual favours. Most of the allegations involved male national staff who traded humanitarian commodities for sex with girls under the age of 18; it is believed that this information had been known to the relevant agencies for some time.

Another related aspect is child-sex tourism, which occurs when individuals travel overseas, usually to developing countries, for the explicit purpose of engaging in sexual acts with children. Although mainly undertaken by males, females have also been known to engage in the practice. With much of the developing world suffering from great poverty, offenders see this as an advantage for them, as payments, either monetary or material, are used as an inducement to children for sex.

There is no denying that child abuse is a great problem around the world, especially in developing countries. One of the key aspects of this is that children, who have rights just like adults, are so often caught in a vicious cycle where society, culture and tradition dictates that certain forms of abuse are merely part of life. Another is that children place great faith in individuals who are in positions where they should be caring for children and, when this faith is broken, many children do not have the capacity to properly deal with the situation. This should not be the case, of course.

 

8. Definitions

Asia-Pacific

Refers to the countries where the LF assists and supports developmental projects presented to it usually through the De La Salle network within, but not exclusively to, the named countries: Papua New Guinea, Cambodia, Myanmar, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

Bullying

The inappropriate use of physical or psychological power by an individual or group done with the intent to injure another either physically or emotionally. Physical bullying includes pushing, hitting, punching, kicking or any other action causing hurt or injury. Verbal bullying includes insults, taunts, threats and ridicules, whilst psychological bullying includes physical intimidation and ostracism.

Child

A child or young person is regarded as any person under the age of 18 years unless a nation’s laws recognise adulthood earlier.

Child Abuse

Any mistreatment of a child by another individual whether deliberate or not. Child abuse happens to boys and girls of all ages, ethnicity and social backgrounds, abilities, sexual orientation, religious beliefs and political persuasions. It includes physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, bullying, child labour and domestic violence. Abuse can be inflicted on a child by both men and women, as well as by young people themselves.

Child Protection

Used to describe the responsibilities and activities undertaken to prevent or stop children from being abused or maltreated.

Child-Sex Tourism

ECPAT International defines child-sex tourism as:

(T)he commercial sexual exploitation of children by people who travel from one place to another to engage in sexual acts with minors, …(usually) from a richer country to one that is less developed (ECPAT International, 2008).

Domestic Violence

The chronic domination, coercion, intimidation and victimisation of one person by another by physical, sexual or emotional means within intimate relationships.

Duty of Care

A common law concept that refers to the responsibility of an organisation to provide children with an adequate level of protection against harm. It is the duty of the organisation to protect children from all reasonably foreseeable risk of injury.

Emotional Abuse

This occurs when a child is repeatedly subjected or exposed to behaviour from another individual that leads to psychological trauma. This may involve name-calling, being verbally put down, bullying, intimidation, continual coldness from a parent or caregiver, degradation, criticism or excessive personal demands, all which may affect a child’s physical, psychological or emotional growth.

Lasallian Partner Organisation (LPO)

Any organisation or establishment that the LF works with on their supported projects.

Neglect

The deliberate denial of or persistent failure to provide clean water, food, shelter, sanitation or supervision or care to a child to the extent that their health and development is placed at risk.

PARC

Stands for the Pacific-Asia Regional Conference and is a regional grouping representing the De La Salle Brothers in countries where the LF work.

Particularly Vulnerable Children

Children whose circumstances mean that they are at higher risk of abuse, including those on the streets, in poverty, in war zones and those affected by natural disasters.

Physical Abuse 

Occurs when a person purposefully injures, or threatens to injure, a child. It may take the form of slapping, punching, shaking, kicking, burning, shoving or grabbing.

Project

Any in-country development or relief activity undertaken by the LF in the pursuit of empowering, or realising the potential of, an individual or community.

Provincial/President

The name used for the De La Salle Brother who has responsibility for the conduct of Lasallian in-country projects. In this policy, Provincial is used for both descriptions of the same responsibility.

Regional Director

An elected position by the Institute of the De La Salle Brothers to whom the Provincial reports.

Sexual Abuse

This occurs when a child or young person is used by another individual for his or her own sexual stimulation or gratification, regardless of the age of majority or age of consent locally. These can be either contact or non-contact acts, including threats and exposure to pornography.

 

9. Child protection risk management

·      The LF recognises that there a number of potential risks to children in the delivery of our projects to the vulnerable and disadvantaged. The Foundation proactively assesses and manages these risks in our projects and in the communities in which we work to reduce the risk of harm. This is achieved by examining each project and the potential impact on children. Projects that involve direct work with children are considered a higher risk and require more stringent child protection procedures. As children are part of every community in which we work, we are mindful of potential risks that may create issues in relation to child protection.

·      The LF acknowledges some situations are a higher risk than others, such as abandoned and orphaned children, children with disabilities, displaced children and those previously abused or exploited. The LF also acknowledges that certain activities also present a greater risk for the abuse of children. These include one-to-one contact, tasks involving personal hygiene, physical contact and those undertaken by volunteers. The LF will develop specific guidelines is relation to these activities and situations in order to minimise the potential for child abuse.

·      Risk management is an ongoing part of every activity undertaken by the LF. We will conduct a child protection risk assessment on every new project, which will be included in the project management cycle. For this purpose, there is a Risk Assurance and Compliance Committee (RACC) that reviews projects supported by the LF. The RACC will use the detailed risk factors as presented in ACFID’s Guidelines for the Development of a Child Protection Policy (2008, pp. 8-10).

·      All LF staff, as well as those within LPOs, should be continually aware of risks associated with children and should be actively attempting to reduce instances of abuse in relation LF-supported projects. Staff should also be aware of the differences between cultures, societies, traditions and communities in terms of the way that children are treated and how this relates to their work with the LF.

·      Incident Reporting Sheets have been developed and are to be utilised whenever an incidence of child abuse is reported by an individual in relation to the LF, its LPOs or within a project supported by the Foundation. Please see the Standard Lasallian Foundation Policy Information for copies of these forms.

 

What should be reported?

·      Any disclosure or allegation from an individual or staff member regarding abuse or mistreatment of a child.

·      Any observation or concerning behaviour exhibited by a LF staff member, volunteer or other relevant stakeholder that breaches a LF policy code of conduct.

·      Inappropriate use of the LF’s photographic equipment or computers, including evidence of child pornography or exploitation or sexualisation of a child, as well as any inappropriate use of personal equipment for the same activities.

·      Staff engaging in suspicious behaviour that could be associated with sexual exploitation or trafficking.

·      In some societies and cultures, certain forms of child abuse are a part of life. It can sometimes be difficult to assess and you must have a sense of neutrality and respect if allegations arise. Whether they are borne out or not will be decided through the investigative process.

 

10. Code of conduct for working with children

Staff members and others are responsible for maintaining a professional role in relation to child protection. This means working in a respectful and approachable manner and maintaining professional boundaries that serve to protect everyone from misunderstandings by promoting transparency and accountability when working with children. This includes staff being conscious of their own behavior, as well as how these behaviors are perceived by others.

All staff should conduct themselves in a manner consistent with their role as a LF representative. The Foundation has developed this CPP to provide clear guidelines for staff in order for them to work transparently and accountably within their role, as well as LF expectations relating to its staff and child protection.

The LF’s Child Safe Code of Conduct includes:

I WILL:

·      Treat all children and young people in LF-supported projects with respect and equality regardless of gender, personal situation or age.

·      Conduct myself in a manner that is consistent with the values of the LF.

·      Provide a welcoming, inclusive and safe environment for all children.

·      Respect cultural, societal, religious, traditional and individual differences.

·      Encourage open communication between all children, parents, staff and volunteers and seek to have children participate in the decisions that affect them.

·      Report immediately any concerns of child abuse.

·      At all times, be transparent in my actions and whereabouts.

·      Take responsibility for ensuring that I am accountable and do not place myself in situations where there is a risk of allegations of child abuse being made.

·      Self-assess my behaviours, actions, language and relationships with children.

·      Speak up when I observe concerning behaviours of colleagues regarding children.

·      Proactively seek to encourage children within all projects in which they partake.

 

I WILL NOT:

·      Engage in behaviour intended to shame, humiliate, belittle or degrade children.

·      Use inappropriate, offensive or discriminatory language when speaking with a child or young person.

·      Do things of a personal nature that a child can do for him or herself, such as assistance with toileting or changing of clothes.

·      Take children to their own residence or sleep in the same room or bed as a child.

·      Smack, hit or physically assault any child.

·      Develop sexual relationships with children or relationships with children that may be deemed exploitative or abusive.

·      Dress or behave provocatively or inappropriately when working with children.

·      Condone or participate in behaviour with a child that is illegal, unsafe or abusive.

·      Act in a way that shows unfair, differential or discriminatory treatment of a child.

·      Photograph or film a child without their consent and that of a parent or guardian.

·      Hold, kiss, cuddle or touch a child in an inappropriate, unnecessary or culturally insensitive way.

·      Seek to make contact or spend time with any child outside a project or the working hours specified in my contract.

·      Use a LF or personal computer, mobile phone, video or digital camera in an inappropriate manner or use them for the purpose of exploiting, abusing or harassing a child.

·      Hire minors as domestic labour.

Additional guidelines are contained in the Inter-Agency Standing Committee’s (IASC’s) Task Force Report on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in Humanitarian Crises (Inter-Agency Standing Committee 2002).

The report outlines six core principles:

1.   Sexual exploitation and abuse by humanitarian workers constitute acts of gross misconduct and are therefore grounds for termination of employment.

2.   Sexual activity with children (persons under the age of 18) is prohibited regardless of the age of majority or age of consent locally. Mistaken belief in the age of a child is not a defence.

3.   Exchange of money, employment, goods or services for sex including sexual favours or other forms of humiliating, degrading or exploitative behaviour, is prohibited. This includes exchange of assistance that is due to beneficiaries.

4.   Sexual relationships between humanitarian workers and beneficiaries are strongly discouraged, since they are based on inherently unequal power dynamics. Such relationships undermine the credibility and integrity of humanitarian aid work.

5.   Where a humanitarian worker develops concerns or suspicions regarding sexual abuse or exploitation by a fellow worker, whether in the same agency or not, he or she must report such concerns via established agency reporting mechanisms.

6.   Humanitarian workers are obliged to create and maintain an environment which prevents sexual exploitation and abuse, and promotes the implementation of their code of conduct. Managers at all levels have particular responsibilities to support and develop systems which maintain this environment.

 

11. Sponsorship guidelines

The LF provides sponsorship that is project-centred and not child-centred. A sponsor will be supporting a specific project; they will not be given details of an individual child, but will be provided with a description of the project they support.

If a sponsor indicates a desire to visit a project, then it must be at a time when a tour is being organised. In consultation with the sponsor, the LF will ensure that any visit is well structured to enable the sponsor to gain an overall appreciation of what their sponsorship is doing. The visit will be monitored at all times.

The LF recognises the need to implement specific guidelines to manage the child protection risks within its sponsorship programs. These include ensuring that:

·      Letters that contain political or religious comments that could cause offence or are deemed inappropriate are not permitted.

·      Sponsors will receive child protection and behavioural guidelines prior to any visit.

·      All visits are arranged in advance through the LF office. As a representative of the LF, sponsors will be interviewed to ensure that they meet Foundation criteria.

·      Sponsors inform the LF at least 3 months in advance of their intended visit.

·      Police checks are undertaken for visiting sponsors and any accompanying family members when required.

·      All visiting sponsors sign the code of conduct as outlined in Section 10.

·      LPO and/or LF staff will be present at all times during the visit.

·      Children should not be invited to leave or be taken away from their communities.

·      Invitations to the sponsor’s home country are not given to any visited child.

·      All gifts and correspondence are screened by the LF or an LPO being visited.

·     Sponsors and individuals participating in a LF-supported project do not exchange mailing addresses during visits.

·      After every visit, a report is sent to the LF head office.

·      Where sponsors do not abide by policies, the LF can terminate sponsorship.

 

12. Use of children’s images

The LF will, at all times, portray children in a respectful, appropriate and consensual way. Our guidelines on the use of children’s images, in line with Clause 4.2 of the ACFID Code of Conduct, are:

·      A child should always be portrayed in a dignified, respectful and positive manner and not in a vulnerable or submissive way. Children should be adequately clothed and not in poses that could be seen as sexually suggestive.

·      Children should be portrayed as part of their community.

·      A child and their family must always be asked for consent when using an image. When asking, details should be given as to how and where images will be used.

·      Where the children are in the care of a guardian, as in residential care, then the guardian will be asked to sign a release for the photo to be used.

·      There should be no information which could potentially identify the child in the publication of the image. If a name is used, then it will be a substitute name.

·      Cultural and religious traditions should be assessed regarding restrictions for the reproduction of personal images.

·      Images should be an honest representation of the context and the facts.

·      When sending images electronically, file labels should not reveal any information that could identify the child.

·      All photographers will be screened for their suitability, including police checks where appropriate.

 

13. References

Australian Council For International Development 2008, Guidelines for the development of a child protection policy, Australian Council For International Development, Deakin, Australia, pp. 8-10.

Australian Council For International Development 2009, ACFID code of conduct (existing code), Australian Council For International Development, retrieved 25 August 2011, www.acfid.asn.au/code-of-conduct/acfid-code-of-conduct.

De Silva, I 2003, Demographic and social trends affecting families in the South and Central Asian region, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, retrieved 1 September 2011, www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/Publications/mtdesilva.pdf.

ECPAT International 2008, Combating child sex tourism, ECPAT International, retrieved 1 September 2011, www.ecpat.net/EI/Programmes_CST.asp.

Inter-Agency Standing Committee 2002, Report of the inter-agency standing committee task force on protection from sexual exploitation and abuse in humanitarian crises, Inter-Agency Standing Committee, Geneva, pp. 4-5.

International Labour Organization 2009, Training manual to fight trafficking in children for labour, sexual and other forms of exploitation - understanding child trafficking, International Labour Organization, retrieved 31 August 2011, www.unicef.org/protection/Textbook_1.pdf.

Lasallian Foundation 2011, Annual report 2010, Lasallian Foundation, Malvern, Australia, p. 25.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights 2007, Convention on the Rights of the Child, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, retrieved 2 September 2011, www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm.

United Nations Children’s Fund 2011a, Optional protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, United Nations Children’s Fund, retrieved 31 August 2011, www.unicef.org/crc/index_30204.html.

United Nations Children’s Fund 2011b, The state of the world’s children 2011, United Nations Children’s Fund, retrieved 31 August 2011, www.unicef.org/sowc2011/pdfs/SOWC-2011-Main-Report_EN_02092011.pdf.

World Health Organisation 2010, Child maltreatment, Fact sheet No. 150, World Health Organisation, retrieved 31 August 2011, www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs150/en/.

 

   

(3rd revision - 14 September 2011)
(2nd revision - 8 November 2010)
(Original - 29 May 2009)